- Giza Excavations & Negative Emotions on Coast To Coast Radio with George Noory
- Stem Cell Success Raises Hopes of Type 1 Diabetes Cure
- Your body language shapes who you are ~ Amy Cuddy
- Buddhist Teachings: The Noble Eightfold Path
- Life Begins: A Crash Course in History
- How To Flirt Properly & Not Be Creepy
- 'What You Can Do Kids' Presents: How To Protect Wild Animals
- Pittsburg Company To Take Mementos To Moon
- Hubble Peers Deep Into Space & Billions of Years Into Our Past
- Where does water actually come from? Comet evidence opening floodgates of mystery
Posted: 11 Dec 2014 09:14 PM PST
Posted: 11 Dec 2014 09:08 PM PST
THURSDAY, Oct. 9, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- In what may be a step toward a cure for type 1 diabetes, researchers say they've developed a large-scale method for turning human embryonic stem cells into fully functioning beta cells capable of producing insulin.
Type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disorder affecting upwards of 3 million Americans, is characterized by the body's destruction of its own insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Without insulin, which is needed to convert food into energy, blood sugar regulation is dangerously out of whack.
Currently, people with type 1 diabetes need daily insulin injections to maintain blood sugar control. But "insulin injections don't cure the disease," said study co-author Douglas Melton, of Harvard University. Patients are vulnerable to metabolic swings that can bring about serious complications, including blindness and limb loss, he said at a teleconference this week.
"We wanted to replace insulin injections using nature's own solution, being the pancreatic beta cell," Melton said. Now, "we are reporting the ability to make hundreds of millions of these cells," he added.
Melton ultimately envisions a credit card-sized package of beta cells that can be safely transplanted into a diabetes patient and left in place for a year or more, before needing to be replaced.
But between then and now, human trials must be launched, a venture Melton thinks could begin in about three years.
If that research pans out, the Harvard team's results may prove to be a benchmark in the multi-decade effort to deliver on the promise of stem cell research as a way to access new treatments for all sorts of diseases.
SOURCES: Douglas A. Melton, Ph.D., co-scientific director, department of stem cell and regenerative biology, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.; Albert Hwa, Ph.D., director, discovery research, JDRF; Oct. 9, 2014 Issue of Cell
Posted: 11 Dec 2014 08:59 PM PST
Click to zoom
Posted: 11 Dec 2014 08:53 PM PST
Posted: 11 Dec 2014 08:50 PM PST
Click to zoom
Posted: 11 Dec 2014 08:48 PM PST
Posted: 11 Dec 2014 08:42 PM PST
Click to zoom
Posted: 11 Dec 2014 08:36 PM PST
Astrobotic Technology Inc. announced the launch of their Moon Mail program, which will send a small memento to the moon for you on its Griffin lunar lander.
“For the first time ever, people from all over the world can take their keepsakes, mementos, and fly them all the way directly to the moon,” John Thornton told KDKA editor Jon Delano on Thursday.
The company was found in 2008 and is a licensed contractor with NASA. They are also an official partner with NASA on the Lunar CATALYST program.
According to a press release, the program is, “an opportunity to commemorate major life – graduations, weddings, birthdays, a loved one’s memory – with a lasting symbol on the moon.”
“With Moon Mail, people from around the world can send a memento on Astrobotic’s lunar lander,” Astrobotic CEO John Thornton said in a statement. “They’ll make history by participating in the first Moon landing.”
“We’re a delivery service. We’re just like FedEx or UPS. We take your packages and send them to the moon,” Thornton said.
Looking for a cool for a loved one?
Thornton says, send a memory of them to the moon.
“The moon is a forever place. It’s up in the sky and you can see it every single night, so we can send pieces of ourselves, stories, and mementos that mean something to us as individuals, and it will be forever immortalized on the surface of the moon.”
In about two years, Astrobotic will launch its first space craft to the moon as part of Google’s Lunar X-Prize Contest — and then land on the surface.
The lunar lander looks pretty typical, and mail will be strapped or attached right to the surface of the lander. The lander ends up on the moon where it stays forever along with your package.
It’s not cheap.
the size of your package, the price ranges from $460 to over $25,000.
“Wouldn’t interest me in the least,” says Carolyn Roberts of Murraysville.
“I want to keep everything here. Give it to the kids,” adds Daneen Miller of Murraysville.
While some have no interest, others see the possibilities.
“It would be pretty cool to say you had a piece of yourself on the moon,” notes R. J. Baughman of Robinson.
“Something that means a lot to me I guess,” says Nikki Boyle of Castle Shannon. “That way if I look up at the moon, I know it’s there.
A pretty cool thought indeed.
Posted: 11 Dec 2014 08:24 PM PST
Posted: 11 Dec 2014 08:07 PM PST
Excerpt from slate.com
WE CALL Earth a water world, and that’s pretty fair: Our planet’s surface is 70 per cent covered in it, it makes up a percentage of our air, and there’s even a substantial amount of it mixed in to the planet’s mantle, deep underground.
But where the heck did it come from?
This is no idle question. We have a lot of water here, and it must have come from somewhere. There are two obvious source — it formed here along with the Earth, or it was brought to Earth from space. Which is the dominant source has been a topic of long and heated debate among astronomers.
The first big science results have just been announced by the European science team working with the Rosetta probe, and, in my opinion, they throw more gasoline on the fire. Measurements made by the probe show that comets like 67P/Churyumov — Gerasimenko — the one Rosetta is orbiting — couldn’t have been the source of our water.
But that hardly helps answer the underlying question! Why not? Ah, the details …
When the Earth formed 4.55 billion years ago (give or take), there was a lot of water in the disk of material swirling around the Sun. Close in to the Sun, where it was warm, that water was a gas, and farther out it formed ice. We see that latter part echoed down through time now in the form of icy moons around the outer planets.
You’d expect water collected on Earth along with everything else (metals, silicates, and so on). When the Earth cooled, a lot of that water bubbled up from the interior or was outgassed by volcanism.
Where does water come from? Source: Getty Images
How to tell? Well, it turns out that in this one case, hipsters are right: Locally sourced is measurably different than stuff trucked in.
Water is made up of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. Hydrogen atoms, it so happens, come in two flavours: The normal kind that has single proton in its nucleus, and a heavier kind called deuterium that has a proton and a neutron (there’s also tritium, with two neutrons, but that’s exceedingly rare). Deuterium is far more rare than the normal kind of hydrogen, but how rare depends on what you look at. The ratio of deuterium to hydrogen in Earth’s water can be different than, say, water in comets, or on Mars.
Note I said, “can be”. We know the ratio differs across the solar system. But suppose we find the same ratio in comets as we do on Earth. That would be powerful evidence that water here began out there. Astronomers have looked at a lot of comets trying to pin down the ratio, and what they’ve found is maddening: Some comets have a ratio very different from Earth’s, and only one (103P/Hartley 2) has a ratio similar to ours.
Jets of material — including water — emanate from comet 67P/Churyumov — Gerasimenko. Source: AP
Rosetta’s comet, 67/P, is also a Jupiter-family comet. You’d expect them to have roughly similar deuterium/hydrogen ratios.
They don’t. 67/P, according to Rosetta, has three times the deuterium per hydrogen atom as Earth (and 103/P).
What does that mean? It’s not clear, which is why this is maddening. It could be simply that not all Jupiter-family comets have the same ratio; they may all have different origins (born scattered across the solar system, so with different D/H ratios), but now belong to the same family. Or it could mean that 67/P is an oddball, with a much higher ratio than most other comets like it. That would seem unlikely, though, since we’ve studied so few you wouldn’t expect an oddball to be found so easily.
Making things more complicated, some asteroids in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter have water on them, and it appears to have an Earth-like D/H ratio. But we think they have so little water that it would take a lot more of them impacting the early Earth to give us our water than it would comets. That’s possible, but we know lots of comets hit us back then, so it’s still weird that the D/H ratios don’t seem to work out. Still, it’s nice that there could be another potential source to study, and this new Rosetta result does lend credence to the idea that asteroids did the wet work.
So what do comets have to do with it? Source: Getty Images