Friday, 30 January 2015

Ascension Earth 2012 -- January 30, 2015

Ascension Earth 2012


  • Neptune-Like Planets Could Transfom Into Habitable Worlds
  • Incredible 50-ft dinosaur unearthed by Chinese farmers
  • Dinosaurs were NOT wiped out by a global firestorm: Asteroid impact was not hot enough to ignite nearby plants, study claims
  • Where Did Humans Come From Documentary
  • Traveling Through the Milky Way
  • Why are we here? Where did we come from? Science & Our Universe
  • Signs You’re The Passive Aggressive Friend
  • Where Did The Earth Come From?
  • Misconceptions About the Universe
  • What Will We Never See in the Universe?
Posted: 29 Jan 2015 11:29 PM PST


Strong irradiation from the host star can cause planets known as mini-Neptunes in the habitable zone to shed their gaseous envelopes and become potentially habitable worlds.
Credit: Rodrigo Luger / NASA images


Excerpt from sciencedaily.com 

Two phenomena known to inhibit the potential habitability of planets -- tidal forces and vigorous stellar activity -- might instead help chances for life on certain planets orbiting low-mass stars, astronomers have found.

Two phenomena known to inhibit the potential habitability of planets -- tidal forces and vigorous stellar activity -- might instead help chances for life on certain planets orbiting low-mass stars, University of Washington astronomers have found.
 
In a paper published this month in the journal Astrobiology, UW doctoral student Rodrigo Luger and co-author Rory Barnes, research assistant professor, say the two forces could combine to transform uninhabitable "mini-Neptunes" -- big planets in outer orbits with solid cores and thick hydrogen atmospheres -- into closer-in, gas-free, potentially habitable worlds.

Most of the stars in our galaxy are low-mass stars, also called M dwarfs. Smaller and dimmer than the sun, with close-in habitable zones, they make good targets for finding and studying potentially habitable planets. Astronomers expect to find many Earthlike and "super-Earth" planets in the habitable zones of these stars in coming years, so it's important to know if they might indeed support life.

Super-Earths are planets greater in mass than our own yet smaller than gas giants such as Neptune and Uranus. The habitable zone is that swath of space around a star that might allow liquid water on an orbiting rocky planet's surface, perhaps giving life a chance.

"There are many processes that are negligible on Earth but can affect the habitability of M dwarf planets," Luger said. "Two important ones are strong tidal effects and vigorous stellar activity."
A tidal force is a star's gravitational tug on an orbiting planet, and is stronger on the near side of the planet, facing the host star, than on the far side, since gravity weakens with distance. This pulling can stretch a world into an ellipsoidal or egglike shape as well as possibly causing it to migrate closer to its star.

"This is the reason we have ocean tides on Earth, as tidal forces from both the moon and the sun can tug on the oceans, creating a bulge that we experience as a high tide," Luger said. "Luckily, on Earth it's really only the water in the oceans that gets distorted, and only by a few feet. But close-in planets, like those in the habitable zones of M dwarfs, experience much stronger tidal forces."

This stretching causes friction in a planet's interior that gives off huge amounts of energy. This can drive surface volcanism and in some cases even heat the planet into a runaway greenhouse state, boiling away its oceans, and all chance of habitability.

Vigorous stellar activity also can destroy any chance for life on planets orbiting low-mass stars. M dwarfs are very bright when young and emit lots of high-energy X-rays and ultraviolet radiation that can heat a planet's upper atmosphere, spawning strong winds that can erode the atmosphere away entirely. In a recent paper, Luger and Barnes showed that a planet's entire surface water can be lost due to such stellar activity during the first few hundred million years following its formation.

"But things aren't necessarily as grim as they may sound," Luger said. Using computer models, the co-authors found that tidal forces and atmospheric escape can sometimes shape planets that start out as mini-Neptunes into gas-free, potentially habitable worlds.

How does this transformation happen?

Mini-Neptunes typically form far from their host star, with ice molecules joining with hydrogen and helium gases in great quantity to form icy/rocky cores surrounded by massive gaseous atmospheres.

"They are initially freezing cold, inhospitable worlds," Luger said. "But planets need not always remain in place. Alongside other processes, tidal forces can induce inward planet migration." This process can bring mini-Neptunes into their host star's habitable zone, where they are exposed to much higher levels of X-ray and ultraviolet radiation.

This can in turn lead to rapid loss of the atmospheric gases to space, sometimes leaving behind a hydrogen-free, rocky world smack dab in the habitable zone. The co-authors call such planets "habitable evaporated cores."

"Such a planet is likely to have abundant surface water, since its core is rich in water ice," Luger said. "Once in the habitable zone, this ice can melt and form oceans," perhaps leading to life.

Barnes and Luger note that many other conditions would have to be met for such planets to be habitable. One is the development of an atmosphere right for creating and recycling nutrients globally.

Another is simple timing. If hydrogen and helium loss is too slow while a planet is forming, a gaseous envelope would prevail and a rocky, terrestrial world may not form. If the world loses hydrogen too quickly, a runaway greenhouse state could result, with all water lost to space.

"The bottom line is that this process -- the transformation of a mini-Neptune into an Earthlike world -- could be a pathway to the formation of habitable worlds around M dwarf stars," Luger said.
Will they truly be habitable? That remains for future research to learn, Luger said.

"Either way, these evaporated cores are probably lurking out there in the habitable zones of these stars, and many may be discovered in the coming years."
Posted: 29 Jan 2015 11:20 PM PST
This illustration shows what the newly discovered long-necked dinosaur may have looked like.
This illustration shows what the newly discovered long-necked dinosaur may have looked like.


Excerpt from cnn.com

Paleontologists have discovered a 50-ft "dragon" dinosaur species in China that may have roamed the earth 160 million years ago in the Late Jurassic period.

The long skeleton was found in 2006 by some local farmers digging for a fishpond in Qijiang city in China's southwestern Chongqing province. 

Lida Xing, a member of the research team from the University of Alberta who made the discovery, told CNN it was named Qijianglong, the "dragon of Qijiang" because farmers thought the bones resembled the shape of Chinese mythical dragons. 

The reconstructed skeleton of Qijianglong in Qijiang Museum in China
The reconstructed skeleton of Qijianglong in Qijiang Museum in China

"We found the dinosaur's huge vertebrae with the skull and the tail, but couldn't find any bones from the hands or the legs. So the locals began to say the long body looked just like a dragon from ancient Chinese stories," he said Xing. 

The findings, published earlier this week in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, show that the new species belongs to a group of dinosaurs called mamenchisaurids, known for their extremely long necks, which would measure up to half their body length. 

Most sauropods, or long-necked dinosaurs, such as those depicted in the popular animated series, "The Land Before Time," have necks that only span one third of their body length.

The skeleton is now housed in a local museum in Qijiang, but will be moved to a new dinosaur museum in the city that is currently being built.
Posted: 29 Jan 2015 11:32 PM PST

UK researchers studied the asteroid impact 66 million years ago (illustration shown). They found the heat near the impact site in Mexico was not intense enough to ignite plant material. A heat pulse lasted less than a minute, too short to set plants alight




Excerpt from dailymail.co.uk
By Jonathan O'Callaghan 

  • UK researchers studied the asteroid impact 66 million years ago
  • They found the heat near the impact site in Mexico was not intense enough to ignite plant material
  • A heat pulse lasted less than a minute, too short to set plants alight
  • Further away in places like New Zealand, the heat could have lasted up to seven minutes and caused some localised fires
  • But the theory that a global firestorm accompanied the asteroid impact is not correct, according to the scientists


The theory that a global firestorm accompanied the asteroid that killed off the dinosaurs may not be correct, according to a new study.

A team of researchers has found that heat near the impact site would not have been sufficient to ignite plants.

It suggests our understanding of the mass extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs may not be as complete as thought.

UK researchers studied the asteroid impact 66 million years ago (illustration shown). They found the heat near the impact site in Mexico was not intense enough to ignite plant material. A heat pulse lasted less than a minute, too short to set plants alight
The team of researchers from the University of Exeter, University of Edinburgh and Imperial College London recreated the immense energy that would have been released from the asteroid impact 66 million years ago.

They found that the intense but short-lived heat near the impact site could not have ignited live plants, challenging the idea that the impact led to global firestorms.

These firestorms have previously been considered a major contender in the puzzle to find out what caused the mass extinction of life on Earth 66 million years ago.
Posted: 29 Jan 2015 11:05 PM PST



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To Gregg,

Resultado de imagem para thank you roses images

For all these years of Friendship,
Guidance and Enlightment.

Ascension Earth 2012

Farewell from Ascension Earth!

I would like to extend a heartfelt thank you to each and every one of you for visiting Ascension Earth over the past few years and making this site, what I consider, such a wonderful and very surprising success since my first post way back in January of 2011. I never dreamed this site would receive just shy of 10 million page views since then, and I want to thank you all again for stopping in from time to time for a visit. I hope you have found some of the content interesting as well as educational, and I want everyone to know that I only shared content I believed to be factual at the time of publication, though I may have reached differing understandingsconcerning some of the subject matter as time has past. All of the content that has been shared here at Ascension Earth was shared with the goal of provoking contemplation and conversation, leading to a raising of consciousness, an ascension of consciousness. That's what ascension is to me.

I have made a decision to move on from here, but I will always remember and always cherish the friendships I have made along this twisting journey since launching this site, what feels like a lifetime ago now. I wish all of you the greatest success in each and every endeavor you shall undertake, and I hope each of you are graced with peace, love & light every step of the way as you continue your never ending journey through this incredibly breathtaking and ever mysterious universe we share together.

Greg

Morgan Kochel says:

Conversation with
A Man Who Went to Mars
by Morgan Kochel

…And there you have it! This was the end of our discussion about the Mars mission, but I have remained in touch with Chad. At this point, I hope to be able to convince him to do a video or TV interview, but of course, there will be more than a few obstacles to overcome, the main one being that he may currently be in some danger if he goes public.

Furthermore, there is always the barrier of peoples' understandable skepticism.

As I said in the beginning, I cannot verify this story for anyone, nor is my intent to convince anyone of its veracity. My goal is only to help him get his story heard, because if this story IS true, the people of this planet are being lied to on a grand scale, and perhaps this will eventually help the UFO Disclosure Movement. It's time for the lies to be uncovered, and time for the truth -- whatever that may be -- to be known once and for all.

a man

esoteric



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