- How Quantum Physics will change your life and amaze the world!
- Miss the March 2015 solar eclipse? Here it is in its amazing entirety!
- MAVEN mission finds early surprises in Martian atmosphere
- Biologists fear DNA editing procedure can alter human DNA
- Top 10 Mistakes Intelligent Men Make With Women ~ James Social Coach ~ Full Length HD
- The Rise of Artificial Intelligence ~ A PBS Documentary
- Top 10 Strange Things People Have Found In Their Backyard
- 25 Fascinating Facts About Egyptian Pyramids You May Not Know
- Blood Moons & Prophecy on Coast To Coast Radio with George Noory
Posted: 20 Mar 2015 08:18 PM PDT
Excerpt from educatinghumanity.com
"Anyone not shocked by quantum mechanics has not yet understood it."Niels Bohr
10 Ways Quantum Physics Will Change the World
Ever want to have a "life do over", teleport, time travel, have your computer work at lightening speed or be guaranteed of no turbulence on your next flight, while many of these things are on the horizon. Make no mistake about it, quantum physics has been around for sometime but it is just about to change all of our lives.
physics deals with the behavior of the smallest things in our universe: subatomic particles. It is a new science, only coming into its own in the early part of the 20th century, when physicists began questioning why they couldn't explain certain radiation effects. One of those pioneering thinkers, Max Planck, used the term "quanta" for the tiny particles of energy he was studying, hence the term "quantum physics". Planck said the amount of energy contained in an electron is not arbitrary, but is a multiple of a standard "quantum" of energy. One of the first practical uses of this knowledge led to the invention of the transistor.
1. Parallel Universes
Ever wonder what life would be like if you could travel back in time? Would you assassinate Hitler? Join the Roman legions and see the ancient world? Ask the head cheerleader to the prom? While we've all got fantasies of what we'd do if given the opportunity, scientists at the University of California Santa Barbara may have cleared the path to righting the wrongs of years gone by.
In a 2010 experiment, the scientists proved that an object may exist simultaneously in two different worlds. They isolated a tiny piece of metal, struck it like a tuning fork and observed that it moved and stood still at the same time. While you probably would have just racked this observation up to delirium caused by overwork, these physicists say it proves that observing an object and action splits the universe into two parts -- one we can see and one we can't. The parallel universe theory says everything freezes during observation -- and then splits.
Scientists are trying to figure out how to jump at the moment of that split from the world we will enter into the one we won't. This parallel universe time travel theory should work, scientists say, because quantum particles move backward and forward through time . Now, all scientists have to do is build a time-bending machine using these quantum particles.
2. Quantum Computing
Another world-changing aspect of quantum physics may come in the computing realm, where a type of superconducting circuit is giving computers unprecedented speed and power. The circuits behave like artificial atoms, researchers say, because they can only gain or lose energy in packets by moving between discrete energy levels. The most complicated atom has five energy levels. This type of system is known as a "qudit" and is a vast improvement over the previous "qubit," which had only two energy levels. Qubits and qudits take the place of the bits used in standard computers. These quantum computers will use the laws of quantum mechanics to perform computations much faster than traditional computers.
3. Quantum cryptography
All sorts of information, from your credit card numbers to top-secret military strategies, are on the Internet, and a skilled hacker with enough knowledge and computer power could play havoc with your finances or world security.Encryption codes keep that information secure, and computer experts work ceaselessly to come up with more and more secure methods.
Encoding messages inside an individual particle of light, or photon, has long been the goal of quantum cryptographers. That method seems to be just at hand, as scientists at the University of Toronto have worked with a method fast enough to encode a video . Cryptography involves a string of ones and zeros called the "key." Adding the key once encodes the information, adding it again decodes it. If an unauthorized person manages to obtain the key, the code can be cracked. But in quantum key distribution, the very act of using the key would reveal the hacker's presence.
Haven't we all imagined what it would be like to instruct Scotty to beam us up, then dissolve into a stream of particles, only to be reassembled in another place? It's science fiction no more; it has been done, not on humans but on large molecules. Therein lies the problem. Every molecule in the human body would have to be scanned and then reassembled on the other side. But that's not going to happen any time soon. Another thing: Once you scan the particle, according to the laws of quantum physics, you have changed it. You can't make an exact copy.
Scientists are using something very, very big -- the Large Hadron Collider -- to look for something very, very small: the fundamental particle believed to be at the root of our universe. The Higgs boson -- sometimes prosaically called the "God particle" -- is what scientists believe gives mass to fundamental particles (electrons, quarks and gluons) . Scientists believe the Higgs boson field must pervade all space, but so far the existence of these particles is just a theory. By isolating the Higgs boson, physicists might be able to understand how the universe went from a dense mass at the moment of the Big Bang to the infinitely spacious universe we have today. It might also explain how matter came to be balanced with antimatter. In short, finding the Higgs boson might explain everything.
It is hard to imagine that the Native American, shamanistic healers and the pioneers of quantum physics would have much in common, but it turns out they do. Niels Bohr, one of the early investigators into this strange field of science, believed that much of what we call reality was dependent on an "observer effect," the relationship between what our reality does and how we observe it. This became a huge debate among quantum physicists, but experiments more than half a century after Bohr proposed his theory provided some support for it.
According to some physicists who have tested Bell's inequality, reality is based on the observer effect, which could explain the power of shamanistic healing and the interaction between the reality of local space-time and human consciousness. As far back as 1998, controlled experiments have demonstrated the effect of observation on particles .
While high-tech science certainly is responsible for many medical breakthroughs, man was dependent on other means of fighting illness for centuries.
A new magnetic semicconductor developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology may lead to faster yet more energy-efficient electronic devices in the future. Called "spintronics," this technology uses the spin state of electrons to transmit and store information. While conventional electronic circuits use only the charge state of an electron, spintronics takes advantage of the electron's spin direction.
Processing information through circuits with spintronics would allow information to be carried in two directions at once, further reducing the size of electronic circuits . This new material injects electrons into the semiconductor based on their spin orientation. The electrons travel through the semiconductor and are ready to be a spin detector on the other side. Scientists say the new semiconductor can work at room temperature and is optically transparent, meaning it could work with touch screens and solar cells. They are also optimistic that it will enable inventors to come up with even more multi-functional devices.
Soon, quantum physics may have eliminated that bumpy ride that causes you to spill your drink on an airplane. By creating quantum turbulence in an ultra-cold atom gas in the laboratory, Brazilian scientists may have come across a method of studying the turbulence that interferes with airplanes and boats. For centuries, turbulence has stumped scientists because of the difficulty in re-creating the conditions that cause it to form.
Turbulence is caused by swirls in a gas or liquid, and in nature occurs in a chaotic manner, seemingly without rhyme or reason . While turbulence can form in air and in water, physicists have discovered it can also form in ultra-cold atom gases and superfluid helium. By studying turbulence in a controlled method in the lab, scientists may one day be able to predict and perhaps control it in nature.
Something called entanglement may be a major influence on the future of solar power. Entanglement means the quantum interconnection of objects, such as atoms that are separated in actual physical space. Physicists believe that entanglement may occur in the parts of plants responsible for photosynthesis, or the conversion of light into energy. The structures responsible for photosynthesis, the chromophores, can turn 95 percent of the light they take in into energy . Scientists are examining how this interconnection on the quantum level can influence solar energy creation, in hopes of developing efficient solar cells based on nature. Scholars have also discovered that algae may be using some form of quantum mechanics to move energy derived from light and may actually be able to store the energy in two places at once.
Posted: 20 Mar 2015 08:03 PM PDT
Posted: 20 Mar 2015 07:58 PM PDT
Excerpt from chroniclebulletin.com
University of Colorado-led Mars mission has observed two unexpected phenomena in the Martian atmosphere, unveiled Wednesday at the 46th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in Texas.NASA describes the finds by MAVEN &mdash the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN mission &mdash as an unexplained high-altitude dust cloud, and an aurora, which was dubbed by scientists the "Christmas lights" simply because it was spotted for 5 days just prior to Dec. 25.
The presence of the dust at orbital altitudes from about 93 miles to 190 miles above the surface had not been expected. Despite the fact that the source and composition of the dust are not however recognized, NASA stated there is no hazard to MAVEN and other spacecraft orbiting Mars.
The aurora, observed by MAVEN's Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph, was described by NASA as a bright ultraviolet auroral glow across the northern hemisphere of Mars. Auroras, typically identified on Earth as northern or southern lights, are triggered by energetic particles such as electrons getting into the atmosphere, causing the gas to glow.
Bruce Jakosky, at CU's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, is principal investigator on the $637 million MAVEN mission. It entered the Mars orbit Sept. 21 after a 10-month journey across 442 million miles through space.
"The spacecraft and instruments are functioning pretty well, the information coming down are spectacular and we're just functioning tough to realize what it really is telling us," Jakosky said.
LASP professor Nick Schneider is the mission's instrument lead on the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph.
"Ordinarily, issues type of calm down, even on a mission, about Christmas," Schneider said. "But man, there was just a flurry of activity."
"What's specifically surprising about the aurora we saw is how deep in the atmosphere it happens &mdash much deeper than at Earth or elsewhere on Mars," LASP investigation associate Arnaud Stiepen, an IUVS team member, stated in a news release. "The electrons producing it must be really energetic."
Via the function of MAVEN, which launched Sept. 18, 2013, scientists hope to understand how the Red Planet lost most of its atmosphere and significantly of its water. The spacecraft is 4 months into its a single-year major mission.
"The Earth has this astounding protective bubble with the magnetosphere, and it takes a fairly particular approach for earth's magnetosphere to light up with an aurora," Schneider stated. "But with Mars, it is a lot extra straightforward. These energetic particles from the sun have a significantly more direct path to the atmosphere, for the reason that Mars lacks that protective magnetosphere.
"I think it really is someplace between attainable and probable that future astronauts will be in a position to delight in the northern lights on Mars."
The dust cloud was observed by the spacecraft's Langmuir Probe and Waves instrument, and has been in proof the complete time MAVEN has been in operation. It is unknown if the cloud is short-term, or one thing of lengthy duration.
"It can be coming from above or be coming from beneath," said LASP research associate Laila Andersson. She is co-principal investigator on the Langmuir Probe and Waves instrument.
"Where we see the dust so far, four months into the mission, it does not match what we would anticipate if it was coming from above. It much more matches what we would count on if it was coming from below &mdash but we do not however fully grasp the processes that are acting in the upper atmosphere where we are seeing it."
Perhaps a single of the couple of certainties with the MAVEN mission was that there would be surprises.
"Correct now we're studying a aspect of the Mars system that has not been explored in detail just before, so it is not surprising that we're seeing new attributes and new processes," Jakosky said.
The mission was set to run a single year. But that could transform.
"We're in the procedure of discussing with NASA a probable extended mission, but no choices have been made yet," Jakosky stated. "Surely, we have fascinating science we can continue to do in an extended mission, but that has not however been authorized."
He mentioned the MAVEN group hopes to know by summer time regardless of whether the spacecraft's mission will, in truth, be extended.
But just after the first four months of information collection, MAVEN scientists are saying so far, so pretty very good.
"Our cup runneth more than," Schneider said. "Many instances over."
Posted: 20 Mar 2015 07:53 PM PDT
Excerpt from themarketbusiness.com
A group of biologists was alarmed with the use a new genome-editing technique to modify human DNA in a way that it can become hereditary.
The biologists worry that the new technique is so effective and easy to use that some physicians may push ahead with it before its safety can be weigh up. They also want the public to understand the ethical issues surrounding the technique, which could be used to cure genetic diseases, but also to enhance qualities like beauty or intelligence. The latter is a path that many ethicists believe should never be taken.
“You could exert control over human heredity with this technique, and that is why we are raising the issue,” said David Baltimore, a former president of the California Institute of Technology and a member of the group whose paper on the topic was published in the journal Science.
Ethicists have been concerned for decades about the dangers of altering the human germ line — meaning to make changes to human sperm, eggs or embryos that will last through the life of the individual and be passed on to future generations. Until now, these worries have been theoretical. But a technique invented in 2012 makes it possible to edit the genome precisely and with much greater ease. The technique has already been used to edit the genomes of mice, rats and monkeys, and few doubt that it would work the same way in people.
The new genome-editing technique holds the power to repair or enhance any human gene. “It raises the most fundamental of issues about how we are going to view our humanity in the future and whether we are going to take the dramatic step of modifying our own germline and in a sense take control of our genetic destiny, which raises enormous peril for humanity,” said George Daley, a stem cell expert at Boston Children’s Hospital and a member of the group.
The biologists writing in Science support continuing laboratory research with the technique, and few if any scientists believe it is ready for clinical use. Any such use is tightly regulated in the United States and Europe. American scientists, for instance, would have to present a plan to treat genetic diseases in the human germline to the Food and Drug Administration.
The paper’s authors, however, are concerned about countries that have less regulation in science. They urge that “scientists should avoid even attempting, in lax jurisdictions, germ line genome modification for clinical application in humans” until the full implications “are discussed among scientific and governmental organizations.”
Though such a moratorium would not be legally enforceable and might seem unlikely to exert global sway, there is a precedent. In 1975, scientists worldwide were asked to refrain from using a method for manipulating genes, the recombinant DNA technique, until rules had been established.
“We asked at that time that nobody do certain experiments, and in fact nobody did, to my knowledge,” said Baltimore, who was a member of the 1975 group. “So there is a moral authority you can assert from the U.S., and that is what we hope to do.”
Recombinant DNA was the first in a series of ever-improving steps for manipulating genetic material. The chief problem has always been one of accuracy, of editing the DNA at precisely the intended site, since any off-target change could be lethal. Two recent methods, known as zinc fingers and TAL effectors, came close to the goal of accurate genome editing, but both are hard to use. The new genome-editing approach was invented by Jennifer Doudna of the University of California, Berkeley, and Emmanuelle Charpentier of Umea University in Sweden.
Their method, known by the acronym Crispr-Cas9, co-opts the natural immune system with which bacteria remember the DNA of the viruses that attack them so they are ready the next time those same invaders appear. Researchers can simply prime the defense system with a guide sequence of their choice and it will then destroy the matching DNA sequence in any genome presented to it. Doudna is the lead author of the Science article calling for control of the technique and organized the meeting at which the statement was developed.
Though highly efficient, the technique occasionally cuts the genome at unintended sites. The issue of how much mistargeting could be tolerated in a clinical setting is one that Doudna’s group wants to see thoroughly explored before any human genome is edited.
Scientists also say that replacing a defective gene with a normal one may seem entirely harmless but perhaps would not be.
“We worry about people making changes without the knowledge of what those changes mean in terms of the overall genome,” Baltimore said. “I personally think we are just not smart enough — and won’t be for a very long time — to feel comfortable about the consequences of changing heredity, even in a single individual.”
Many ethicists have accepted the idea of gene therapy, changes that die with the patient, but draw a clear line at altering the germline, since these will extend to future generations. The British Parliament in February approved the transfer of mitochondria, small DNA-containing organelles, to human eggs whose own mitochondria are defective. But that technique is less far-reaching because no genes are edited.
There are two broad schools of thought on modifying the human germline, said R. Alta Charo, a bioethicist at the University of Wisconsin and a member of the Doudna group. One is pragmatic and seeks to balance benefit and risk. The other “sets up inherent limits on how much humankind should alter nature,” she said.
Some Christian doctrines oppose the idea of playing God, whereas in Judaism and Islam there is the notion “that humankind is supposed to improve the world.” She described herself as more of a pragmatist, saying, “I would try to regulate such things rather than shut a new technology down at its beginning.”
Other scientists agree with the Doudna group’s message.
“It is very clear that people will try to do gene editing in humans,” said Rudolf Jaenisch, a stem cell biologist at the Whitehead Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, who was not a member of the Doudna group. “This paper calls for a moratorium on any clinical application, which I believe is the right thing to do.”
Writing in Nature last week, Edward Lanphier and other scientists involved in developing the rival zinc finger technique for genome editing also called for a moratorium on human germline modification, saying that use of current technologies would be “dangerous and ethically unacceptable.”
The International Society for Stem Cell Research said Thursday that it supported the proposed moratorium.
The Doudna group calls for public discussion but is also working to develop some more formal process, such as an international meeting convened by the National Academy of Sciences, to establish guidelines for human use of the genome-editing technique.
“We need some principled agreement that we want to enhance humans in this way or we don’t,” Jaenisch said. “You have to have this discussion because people are gearing up to do this.”
Posted: 20 Mar 2015 07:47 PM PDT
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